South Africa

Khwezela North (Landau) Mine

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Mine TypeOpen Pit
  • Coal (thermal)
Mining Method
  • Dragline
  • Truck & Shovel / Loader
Mine Life... Lock
SnapshotKhwezela North (previously known as Landau) consists of the current operating Navigation pit as well as the Kromdraai and Umlalazi pits, which are currently being rehabilitated. The Clydesdale SACE life extension project lies on the southern boundary of the Landau MR. Coal Resources are not reported for this project due to current environmental permitting considerations.
Related AssetKhwezela Operation


Thungela Resources Limited 90 % Indirect
Ownership Tree
Thungela Resources Limited holds 90% of the Khwezela North in South Africa with the remaining 10% held collectively by an employee partnership plan and a community partnership plan.

Deposit type

  • Sedimentary


Khwezela North is located in the Witbank Coalf ield where f I've coal seams are present. These consists of, from bottom, the No 1 Seam, sequentially to the No 5 Seam at the top and all contribute to the resource and reserve base. At Navigation pit, all seams, with the exception of the No 3 Seam, to a greater or lesser extent, have previously been mined underground, with the select portion of the No 2 Seam mined most extensively. The No 4, 2 and 1 Seams currently contribute to the colliery’s export product. Washouts have been intersected in the north where the coal seams have been eroded by palaeo-rivers, with the resultant channels filled with clastic sediments. The edges of the washouts are irregular due to differential compaction. Northeast – southwest trending floor rolls are also encountered. Both the No 1 and the No 2 Seam occur, separated by the No 1 Seam parting (P1). The floor to the No 1 Seam consists of a thin carbonaceous shale band, which conformably overlies a reworked tillite of the Dwyka Formation. The No 1 Seam is present over the majority of the Navigation area and has been previously mined via underground workings (bord and pillar). It averages 1.27 m thick but reaches a maximum thickness of 2.63 m. The P1 is variable in thickness, ranging from zero to 4.20 m with an average thickness of 1.74 m. The No 2 Seam is present across the entire Navigation area; the select portion of the seam ( the Number 2 Seam Select, S2S) has been previously mined by underground mining. The No 2 Seam is generally 7.12 m thick (varying from 4.63 to 9.60 m) and consists of a number of distinct quality zones or sub-seams with the better quality coal occurring in the lower portions of the seam. The uppermost zone, the Number 2 Seam Roof Coal (S2RC), is generally poorer in quality with shaley partings. The underlying Number 2 Seam Top Coal (S2TC) has a maximum thickness of 1.08 m, only averaging 0.21 m, and consists of dull coal. The S2TC is occasionally separated from the S2S by a gritty, carbonaceous shale parting (P2S). The S2S occurs at the base of the No 2 Seam and has a high proportion of bright coal. The No 3 Seam consists of good quality coal but is thin (average thickness of 0.30 m) and is therefore not currently economic. The No 4 Seam is present across most of the Navigation area, but due to a regional erosional event, it is truncated to the west of the Navigation Pit. It averages 3.99 m thick and is subdivided into the Number 4 Seam Top (S4T) and Number 4 Seam Select (S4S) sub-seams. The S4T is on average, 0.95 m thick and the S4S is 1.59 m thick. The S4U is separated from the No 4 Seam by a shaley parting that ranges between 0.15 and 3.86 m thick. The S4U has an average thickness of 1.63 m and consists of virgin coal with a relatively low Calorific Value (CV1) of 19 MJ/kg and is therefore not considered economic. The No 5 Seam has been affected by weathering and erosion and, as a result, is poorly preserved in the Navigation area. It is generally present in the south and south-eastern portion of the area (as both virgin blocks and pillars in previously mined areas) These previously mined areas have extraction rates of up to 67%. It averages approximately 1.75 m thick.



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Mining Methods


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All production numbers are expressed as clean coal.

Operational metrics

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Production Costs

Commodity production costs have not been reported.

Heavy Mobile Equipment


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Mine Management

Job TitleNameProfileRef. Date
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Jun 12, 2023
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