Kombat Mine

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Mine TypeOpen Pit
  • Copper
  • Lead
  • Silver
Mining Method
  • Truck & Shovel / Loader
Production Start... Lock
Mine Life2038
ShapshotThe Kombat Mine is one of the most significant copper mines in Namibia.

Trigon Namibia is currently focused on the restart of the Kombat Mine, with the first phase being open pit mining and the second phase being the longer life, higher grade underground operations, starting with the re-opening of the Asis West shaft and thereafter the Asis Far West shaft.

In Oct 2021, the Kombat Mine officially commenced production from the Central pit of its open pit mine after 14 years of mine closure.

In Aug 2022, a decision was made to pause operations.

On May 9, 2023, open pit mining operations resumed at the Kombat mine and commercial production was achieved on October 11, 2023. Dewatering the underground mine began in September 2023. This will allow for mining to begin in the first half of 2024.


Epangelo Mining Company (Pty) Ltd. 10 % Indirect
Havana Investments Ltd. 10 % Indirect
Trigon Metals Inc. 80 % Indirect
Trigon Mining (Namibia) Pty Ltd. (operator) 100 % Direct
Ownership Tree
Trigon Metals primary asset is a 100% interest in the formerly producing Kombat Copper Mine.

Trigon Mining (Namibia) is owned by Trigon Metals with a shareholding of 80%, Epangelo Mining with a shareholding of 10% and Havana Investments with a shareholding of 10%, and is currently redeveloping the old Kombat and Gross Otavi copper mines with its local partners.



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Deposit type

  • Vein / narrow vein
  • Breccia pipe / Stockwork
  • Epithermal
  • Carbonate hosted


The Kombat mineralised zones are carbonate-hosted base metal sulphide deposits associated with hypogene filled karst cavities and only occur along parallel “roll structures”, which are thrust-related folds. One “roll” parallel to the main Kombat Mine “roll” is present at surface at Kombat Station approximately 1,500 m to the north. The mineralised karst is thought to be caused by the upward migration of corrosive, evaporitederived brines through the Huttenberg carbonates. These brines were expelled from the basin during compression, migrated up the thrusts into folds and encountered oxidized meteoric groundwater and formed corrosive suphuric and carbonic acids. These acids were blocked by the impermeable and reducing Mulden shales resulting in the precipitation of base metal sulphides.

The orebodies are epigenetic, hydrothermal, and metasomatic replacement and fracture-fill Cu-Pb-(Ag) type deposits. Common to all types of mineralisation is the small quantity of associated hydrothermal gangue minerals such as calcite, quartz, dolomite, and seldom barite. The degree of oxidation of massive sulphides is independent of the depth, it is controlled by the proximity of the ores to the water-bearing faults and steeply foliated sandstone aquifers.

Massive and Semi-massive Sulphides are elongated, foliated zones of mineralised dolostone related to centres of tectonic and sedimentary brecciation in dolostone stratigraphy. The replacement ore is best developed in breccia matrices, lenses of feldspathic sandstone, in pervasively calcitised dolostone and particularly in oölitic, pelletal/detrital units closest to the slate contact.

At least four breccia types can be distinguished. These are firstly the syn-depositional sedimentary breccia with angular dolostone clasts in a micritic and often calcitic matrix and secondly the stylo-breccia with an anastomising or quadrangular meshwork of net-vein fractures. The fault breccia (associated with post-ore fractures) and the solution collapse breccia (associated with karsting and localised by a north-east trending fault) have little volumetric extent and no control on hypogene mineralisation (Innes and Chaplin, 1986). A foliation is frequently superimposed where breccia grades into transposition breccia in which clasts are attenuaded and boudinaged. High grade mineralisation extends away from the centres of brecciation along zone of recrystalised dolostone. All gradations of mineralisation from finely disseminated sulphides to completely replaced rock exist in the sandstone and in the dolostone.

A reticulate or anastomosing mesh of mineralised calcitic micro-fractures is developed adjacent to shears, faults and broad zones of pervasive calcitization below massive sulphides. It is therefore regarded as the “root zones” of the massive ore (Dean, 1995). With increasing deformation it grades into sutured stylolites. The stylo-cumulates contain magnetite, bornite, galena and chalcopyrite. In oxidised zones chalcocite, malachite, copper and hematite are found. It is common for mineralisation of this type to merge into alteration breccias and massive replacement Cu-Pb ores (Innes and Chaplin, 1986).

Galena-rich Alteration Breccias are confined to Kombat East orebodies where steep breccia bodies of pipe-like configuration exist. An unaltered core of close-packed angular dolostone blocks is surrounded by a bleached, calcitised fringe induced by hydraulic fracturing which permitted increased fluid flow along the fracture system. The mineral assemblage comprises galena, pyrite and subordinate chalcopyrite.

It is an alteration facies of the feldspathic sandstone affected by penetrative deformation and therefore formed early in the mineralizing process. Fine-grained, euhedral pyrite is disseminated in a generally strongly foliated sericite-quartz matrix. Ore minerals are seldom present.

Iron-manganese Oxide/silicate Association
This compositionally and texturally layered Fe- and Mn-assemblage is always associated with feldspathic sandstone and discrete steeply orientated zones of tectonic deformation. It forms an integral part of the orebodies of Asis West, Kombat Central and Kombat East. Larger bodies, with an estimated undeformed size of 50 m in length by 10 m thick comprise hematite and magnetite in juxtaposition to layered Mn-oxides and -silicates within a zone of transposition. The main banded ore minerals are magnetite, hausmannite, hematite, barite, calcite, tephroite, alleghanyite, pyrochroite, and small amounts of pinkish jasperoidel rock. Mn-ores are fine grained and polymineralic aggregates with a well-defined internal mineral banding (band width: 1 to 6 mm) of magnetite alternate with the assemblage leucophoenicite-tephroite-Cu and kutnahorite-barite-barysilite. The layered Fe-Mn bodies are confined to the Kombat Mine and predate the sulphide formation.

Epithermal Association
This association commonly comprises transgressive vuggy veins containing euhedral calcite, quartz, and chalcopyrite. It postdates the main period of mineralisation. In addition, a number of narrow veins containing galena, sparry rhodochrosite, helvite, and barite cross-cut the lenses of Fe-Mn oxides/silicates and adjacent bodies of massive galena-chalcopyrite (Innes and Chaplin, 1986).

Sulphide and carbonate minerals occur in zones around and running parallel to the major northeast striking cross-cutting faults. The malachite-azurite zone averages 50 m in width and is closest to the faults. The covellite-chalcocite zone is approximately 50 m wide and further away from the fault and the covellite-chalcocite zone is up to 100 m wide and surrounded by the chalcopyrite zone. The zonation marks the alteration of the basic chalcopyrite mineralisation by oxidizing groundwater. Broad zones of calcitisation flank sulphide lenses; at depth, these can form 200-300 m widths of sugary limestone. Calcitisation is the dominant alteration associated with mineralisation. Steeply dipping lenses of compositionally and texturally layered Fe-Mn oxide-silicate mineralisation are generally found near feldspathic sandstone lenses and are commonly associated with the peripheries of the Cu-Pb mineralised zones. These Fe-Mn bodies are layered, lenticular and typically 100 m long by 50 m wide and may reach sizes up to 300 m long by 100 m wide.



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Mining Methods


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Crushers and Mills


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There is no production data for fiscal year 2023. In August 2022, Trigon announced that it had elected to pause open pit mining operations. In May 2023, Trigon restarted open pit mining production.

Production numbers for 2022 are for the period from March 2022 to August 2022.
CommodityProductUnits2022LOM (Projected)
Copper Concentrate kt 0073
Copper Metal in concentrate M lbs 36
Silver Metal in concentrate oz 327,084

Operational metrics

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Ore tonnes mined 000000
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Production Costs

Commodity production costs have not been reported.

Heavy Mobile Equipment


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Mine Management

Source Source
Job TitleNamePhoneEmailProfileRef. Date
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Sep 1, 2021
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Dec 14, 2023
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Dec 14, 2023
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required ........... Subscription required ........... Subscription required Subscription required Jan 8, 2024

EmployeesContractorsTotal WorkforceYear
Subscription required Subscription required Subscription required 2021

Aerial view:


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