Mining Intelligence and News
United States

Wind Mountain Project

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Mine TypeOpen Pit
StagePreliminary Economic Assessment
  • Gold
  • Silver
Mining Method
  • Truck & Shovel / Loader
Mine Life... Lock
SnapshotThe Wind Mountain property is a property of merit and warrants additional exploration as well as economic studies.


Bravada Gold Corp. 100 % Indirect
The claims are wholly owned or leased by Rio Fortuna Exploration (U.S.) Inc., Bravada’s wholly owned U.S. subsidiary.



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Deposit type

  • Breccia pipe / Stockwork
  • Epithermal


The deposits at the Wind Mountain project and other occurrences of gold-silver mineralization in the Walker Lane and Northern Nevada (e.g., Round Mountain, Midas, Hycroft, Hog Ranch) have long been considered examples of epithermal precious-metal deposits that are classified as the “low-sulfidation” type. GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MINERALIZATION OF WIND MOUNTAIN DEPOSITS Mineralization at the Wind Mountain project is characterized by low-grade gold (>~0.005oz Au/ton) with variable silver hosted by sinter and silicified volcaniclastic material. The silver to gold ratio is variable but averages approximately 30:1. Precious metals typically are accompanied by arsenic (20-175ppm As), antimony (20-175ppm Sb), mercury (1-10ppm Hg), selenium (20-180ppm Se) and molybdenum (1-5ppm Mo), which increase in abundance with increasing gold grades. Base metals are locally enriched in the deepest drill holes. The highest molybdenum values (>100ppm Mo) coincide with elevated rhenium (to 0.2ppm Re) in a few deep intercepts, possibly indicative of a felsic intrusion at depth (Crist, et al., 2016). Continuity of gold mineralization within the Wind Mountain deposits is good at grades in the range of 0.005 to 0.015oz Au/ton. Higher-grade zones occur in generally flat-lying pods up to 1,000ft long by 300ft wide and 100ft thick within lower-grade mineralization. Gold occurrences continue sporadically for thousands of feet beyond the known mined deposits, and present opportunities for further exploration. Gold and silver occur primarily as electrum in oxidized zones. Late-phase pyrite containing gold may also be present as coatings on an early barren form of pyrite where sulfides are not oxidized (Wood, 1990). The host mineral of the unoxidized silver mineralization has not been identified. Pyrite, minor marcasite and traces of cinnabar are the most common sulfide minerals observed. Within the near-surface oxide zone of the Wind Mountain deposits, small amounts of unoxidized pyrite are encapsulated in silica. Native sulfur is present in strongly bleached and leached zones in the deposit. Approximately 0.5 to 3% disseminated pyrite can be found in shallow bedrock beneath the pediment surrounding the Wind Mountain project. Oxidation and leaching are developed to depths of more than 600ft in general, and up to 1,000ft along the Wind Mountain fault. Surface leaching of rocks occurred throughout the deposit area and resulted in formation of goethite, jarosite, and hematite after sulfide minerals. The state of oxidation of gold and silver mineralization can have a significant impact on metallurgical recoveries. Prior to mining, surface sampling and drilling geochemistry delineated a pervasive zone of detectable gold at 0.0001 to 0.005oz Au/ton (0.005 to 0.17g Au/t) in a two square mile (five square kilometer) halo around the Wind Mountain gold deposit closely associated with weakly to moderately argillized and weakly silicified rocks. Grades greater than 0.005oz Au/ton (>0.17g Au/t) were associated with moderate to strong silicification and argillic alteration covering an area approximately 6,500ft (2,000m) long and 1,000ft (300m) wide. Offset by faulting is apparent in the distribution of gold grades. Intensely silicified rocks covering an area approximately 2,500ft (750m) long and 200ft (60m) wide with greater than 0.001oz Au/ton (0.34g Au/t) and locally greater than 0.29oz Ag/ton (10.0g Ag/t) are present on the crest of Wind Mountain. Nearly all rocks of mineable grade occurred within or directly adjacent to the surface expression of the crest zone (Wood, 1990). Drilling ultimately defined the Wind Mountain and Breeze gold mineralized zones, which were partially mined by AMAX in the 1990’s. WIND PIT AND DEEP MIN DEPOSITS The axis of the Wind deposit is oriented north-northeast, and a crudely developed network of clay-filled vertical fractures of roughly similar orientation can be traced through the Wind pit. The blasthole data reportedly delineate several pods of higher-grade gold mineralization that suggest lateral flow along permeable horizons. No obvious feeder structure is apparent from the data, and drilling beneath the deposits indicates that the clay-filled fractures do not contain enriched gold mineralization at depth. The fractures were not likely to have been feeder structures, but rather provided permeability for hydrothermal fluid flow within favorable stratigraphic horizons. The known precious metal-bearing material remaining at the Wind Mountain property includes mineralization in an area roughly 5,000ft north-south by 1,200ft wide by 600ft vertical thickness at the Wind deposit. The approximate dimensions of Deep Min mineralization are about 900ft long by 700ft wide by 700ft vertical thickness. BREEZE DEPOSIT The Breeze pit is the northern and smaller of two open pits mined by AMAX. Silicified volcaniclastic rocks host gold and silver mineralization, although silicification is not as strongly developed as in the Wind pit. A crudely developed fracture network trends roughly north to northwest through the pit. Feeder structures for the Breeze pit mineralization have not been identified with certainty. Shallow south-dipping mineralization extends over 1,000ft southward from the existing Breeze pit. The known precious metal-bearing material remaining at the Breeze deposit covers an area that is 3,400ft northsouth by 1,000ft wide by 200ft vertical thickness. NORTH HILL TARGET A small area of mineralization known as the North Hill target, located approximately 3,000ft northwest of the Breeze pit, has been drilled. The limits to this mineralization have not been defined. The North Hill target mineralization could represent the surface expression of a shallowly south-dipping, down-faulted extension of the Breeze deposit. ZEPHYR TARGET A similar geologic setting to that of the North Hill target occurs approximately 3,000ft to the northwest, where a post-mineral fault has down dropped and preserved favorable stratigraphy beneath alluvium and lake sediments. Five holes have been drilled in the area, including an historic 540ft drill hole that intersected 60ft of 0.009oz Au/ton at the bottom of the hole.



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Mining Methods


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Crushers and Mills

Milling equipment has not been reported.



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CommodityUnitsAvg. AnnualLOM
Gold koz 50213
Silver koz 2781,194
Gold Equivalent koz 227
All production numbers are expressed as metal in doré.

Operational metrics

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Waste tonnes, LOM  ....  Subscribe
Ore tonnes mined, LOM  ....  Subscribe
Total tonnes mined, LOM  ....  Subscribe
Tonnes processed, LOM  ....  Subscribe
* According to 2023 study.

Production Costs

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Total cash costs Gold USD  ....  Subscribe
All-in sustaining costs (AISC) Gold USD  ....  Subscribe
Assumed price Silver USD  ....  Subscribe
Assumed price Gold USD  ....  Subscribe
* According to 2023 study / presentation.
** Net of By-Product.

Operating Costs

OP mining costs ($/t mined) USD 2.51 *  
OP mining costs ($/t milled) USD  ....  Subscribe
Processing costs ($/t milled) USD  ....  Subscribe
* According to 2023 study.

Project Costs

MetricsUnitsLOM Total
Initial CapEx $M USD  ......  Subscribe
Sustaining CapEx $M USD  ......  Subscribe
Total CapEx $M USD  ......  Subscribe
OP OpEx $M USD  ......  Subscribe
Processing OpEx $M USD 96.1
Refining costs $M USD  ......  Subscribe
G&A costs $M USD 18.3
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After-tax NPV @ 5% $M USD  ......  Subscribe
After-tax NPV @ 10% $M USD  ......  Subscribe
After-tax NPV @ 8% $M USD  ......  Subscribe
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After-tax payback period, years  ......  Subscribe

Required Heavy Mobile Equipment


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Mine Management

Job TitleNameProfileRef. Date
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Jan 20, 2023
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Jan 20, 2023
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Jan 2, 2024


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