Peru

Cerro Lindo Mine

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Overview

Mine TypeUnderground
StatusActive
Commodities
  • Zinc
  • Copper
  • Silver
  • Lead
  • Gold
Mining Method
  • Sub-level stoping
  • Cut & Fill
  • Longhole stoping
Backfill type ... Lock
Production Start... Lock
Mine Life... Lock
SnapshotThe Cerro Lindo is world-class zinc underground operation with strong by-product contribution. First mine in Peru to use desalination. The Cerro Lindo mine is substantially mechanized.

During 2023, the exploratory drilling program at the Cerro Lindo focused on extending the mineralization, as well as identifying new mineralized zones at the Pucasalla target and its extensions to extend the life of the mine at Cerro Lindo.

In March 2023, production at the Cerro Lindo mine was suspended due to unusually heavy rainfall levels and overflowing rivers caused by Cyclone Yaku. Nonetheless, following the successful underground mine dewatering process, operations resumed at full capacity in April 2023.

Owners

SourceSource
CompanyInterestOwnership
Nexa Resources S.A. 83.48 % Indirect
Nexa Resources Perú is 83.48% directly and indirectly owned by Nexa Resources.

All Cerro Lindo mine`s mineral concessions are held in the name of Nexa Resources Peru S.A.A.

Contractors

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Deposit type

  • VMS

Summary:

Cerro Lindo is a Kuroko-style VMS deposit with economic grades of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Ag.

The Cerro Lindo deposit is 1,500 meters long, 1,000 meters wide, and has a current (2023) vertical development of 470 meters below the surface. Mineralization consists of at least 10 discrete mineralized zones. The Cerro Lindo deposit comprises lens-shaped massive bodies, composed of pyrite (50.0% to 90.0%), yellow sphalerite, brown sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and minor galena. Significant barite is present mainly in the upper portions of the deposit. A secondary-enrichment zone, composed of chalcocite and covellite, has formed near the surface where massive sulfides have oxidized. Silver-rich powdery barite remains at the surface as a relic of sulfide oxidation and leaching.

In 2023, mineral exploration in Cerro Lindo focused on extensions of known ore bodies to the southeast of Cerro Lindo and on the Pucasalla target, as well as starting drilling tests at the Patahuasi Millay target, located 500 meters to the northwest of Cerro Lindo mine.

Mineralization is hosted by a pyroclastic unit composed of ash and lapilli-type polymictic tuffs with subrounded, well classified fragments. Some lapilli have centimetre-scale, pencil-like shapes, due to development of an incipient schistosity.

Eight styles of mineralization were identified at the Cerro Lindo deposit:
1. Pyritic, homogeneous, primary massive sulphide (SPP): This unit includes almost exclusively pyrite, less than 10% barite, and minor interstitial chalcopyrite. Its structure is equigranular, generally coarse grained (3 mm to 6 mm), but with fine-grained areas (0.4 mm to 2 mm)

2. Copper-rich, baritic homogeneous primary sulphides (Cu-SPB): This unit contains more than 50% total sulphides (including barite), and more than 10% barite. Barite is associated with sulphides because it was deposited from the same solution at the same time as the sulphides. Its structure is homogeneous, and it is composed of barite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, chalcopyrite, and brown sphalerite. Sulphides typically occur as intergrowths and patches, and brown sphalerite is included in chalcopyrite grains. There is less pyrite than in the Zn-SPB unit (described below). The Cu-SPB is generally found within or near the contact with Zn-SPB and SPP.

3. Zinc-rich, banded, baritic primary sulphides (Zn-SPB): This unit comprises more than 50% of total sulphides (including barite), and more than 10% barite. The Zn-SPB unit contains variable proportions of pyrite, barite, yellow sphalerite, and galena. It is typically banded and has a coarse grain size (3 mm to 6 mm).

4. Semi-massive sulphides (SSM): This unit contains between 20% and 50% sulphides, which are mostly represented by barren pyrite as disseminations, patches, stringers, and stockworks. This mineralization is generally fine grained as compared to massive sulphides. SSM forms a variable envelope, 20 m to 80 m thick, around the massive sulphide bodies. The sulphide proportion decreases outward. It is better developed in the footwall.

5. Pyritic oxidized sulphides (SOP): This unit comprises bornite and covellite, and is mostly located in the OB2 mining production area.

6. Baritic oxidized sulphides (SOB): This unit comprises bornite, covellite, and oxidized zinc, and it is also located in the OB2 mining production area.

7. Leached massive sulphides (SLB) and leached semi-massive sulphides (SSL): These units are located near surface in the OB2 mining production area.

8. Mineralized volcanic rocks (VM): This unit contains rhyolite and dacite rocks with some chalcopyrite and sphalerite disseminated in veinlets or patches, located on the edge of the mineralized zones.

Cerro Lindo contains 19 mining production areas within the mineralization domains. The mineralized lenses exhibit an irregular elongated geometry. Their longest axis (nearly 500 m) has a northwest-southeast horizontal trend (azimuth 135°). The mineralized bodies are approximately 300 m thick (occurring between 1,600 MASL and 1,980 MASL) and 100 m wide. They are the largest near the edge of the Topará Ravine, beyond which they diminish in size toward the southeast. The mineralized bodies generally dip to the southwest at 65° on average.

The majority of these bodies show three types of mineralization. The upper part features the massive mineralization of barite, sphalerite, galena, and pyrite (SPB). The lower part includes massive pyrite (SPP), with two different general grain sizes, one fine grained with a higher chalcopyrite content and the other coarse grained and largely barren. In the lateral portions, mineralization is semi-massive, contains 20% to 50% sulphides, and occurs as disseminations, patches, and stockworks. The base of the system exhibits a cluster of small veins of pyrite, pyrrhotite, and to a lesser extent, chalcopyrite. The mineralization at Cerro Lindo is generally coarse grained, which may be related to recrystallization due to the contact metamorphism, and this improves metallurgical recovery.

The massive sulphide frequently presents a marked banding, which may be related to tectonic deformation. In the contact with the adjacent batholiths, there is a noticeable predominance of remobilized sulphides elongated in banding that runs parallel to the volcanic contact with the intrusives. The rigidity of the batholiths likely fostered the generation of areas of greater sulphide deformation and mobilization.

Recently, a new domain termed mineralized volcanic (VM) has been identified, which differs from the other lithologies because it does not contain massive sulphides. The mineralization is scattered or occurs as patches in the volcanic rock and consists of mainly tetrahedrite, freibergite, sphalerite, and galena. Typical metal concentrations in VM are up to 15% Fe; 1% Zn, and greater than 0.25% Cu, 0.50% Pb, and 30 ppm Ag.

Significant barite is present mainly in the upper portions of the deposit. A secondary enrichment zone, composed of chalcocite and covellite, formed near surface. Silver-rich powdery barite remains at surface as a relic from sulphide oxidation and leaching.

The lead content is usually low and is mainly associated with high grade zinc zones, and locally with late quartz veins or small volcanic enclaves. These enclaves represent approximately 2% to 3% of the deposit volume, and commonly measure 0.5 m to 10 m in diameter. Silver grades correlate well with copper and lead.

As is typical of Kuroko-style VMS deposits, Cerro Lindo is characterized by a distinct mineralization zonation.

Reserves

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Mining Methods

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Comminution

Crushers and Mills

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Processing

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Production

CommodityProductUnits20242023202220212020201920182017
Zinc Metal in concentrate kt  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe126130156
Copper Metal in concentrate kt  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe383844
Silver Metal in concentrate koz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe3,2503,3443,546
Lead Metal in concentrate kt  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe121315
Gold Metal in concentrate koz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe4.54.14
Zinc Equivalent Metal in concentrate kt  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe250246285
Copper Concentrate kt  ....  Subscribe145146166
Lead Concentrate kt  ....  Subscribe192023
^ Guidance / Forecast.

Operational metrics

Metrics2023202220212020201920182017
Daily processing capacity  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe21,000 t21,000 t21,000 t
Ore tonnes mined  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe
Tonnes processed  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe6,799,747 t6,914,653 t7,297,624 t
Daily processing rate  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe18,629 t18,944 t19,993 t

Production Costs

CommodityUnits20242023202220212020201920182017
Cash costs (sold) Zinc USD  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 0.16 / lb **   -0.02 / lb **   -0.09 / lb **  
^ Guidance / Forecast.
** Net of By-Product.

Operating Costs

Currency2023202220212020201920182017
Total operating costs ($/t milled) USD 40.6  40.3  38.2  32.6  35.3  33.6  29.1  

Financials

Units2023202220212020201920182017
Sustaining costs M USD  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 50.5   25.9   7.5  
Capital expenditures M USD  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 50.5   25.9   7.5  
Revenue M USD  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 480.6   548.1   629.3  
EBITDA M USD  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 198.1   271.3   362.5  

Heavy Mobile Equipment

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Personnel

Mine Management

Job TitleNameProfileRef. Date
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Apr 5, 2024
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EmployeesContractorsTotal WorkforceYear
...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required 2023
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Aerial view:

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