South Africa

Two Rivers Mine

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Overview

Mine TypeUnderground
Commodities
  • Platinum
  • Palladium
  • Rhodium
  • Ruthenium
  • Iridium
  • Gold
  • Nickel
  • Copper
  • Chrome
Mining Method
  • Bord-and-pillar
Production Start... Lock
Mine Life2046
ShapshotTwo Rivers Platinum (TRP) is an existing underground mechanised mine. The site comprises of both the Merensky and the underlying Upper Group 2 Reefs (UG2).

TRP is authorised to expand the UG2 underground section and mine the Merensky ore. Mining the Merensky Reef commenced as planned in February 2022.

TRP has an on-site concentrator plant for UG2 Reef ore. A new concentrator will process the Merensky Reef ore.The project targets annual production of 182 000 6E PGM ounces, 1 600 tonnes of nickel and 1 300 tonnes of copper. The project is scheduled to start producing PGM concentrate as per the planned date of mid-2024.

Owners

SourceSource
CompanyInterestOwnership
Impala Platinum Holdings Ltd. 46 % Indirect
African Rainbow Minerals Ltd. 54 % Indirect
Two Rivers Platinum Proprietary Ltd. (operator) 100 % Direct
Ownership Tree
Two Rivers is a joint venture between African Rainbow Minerals (54%) and Implats (46%).

Contractors

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Deposit type

  • Magmatic

Summary:

The Two Rivers Platinum Mine (TRP) comprises of both the Merensky and the underlying Upper Group 2 Reefs (UG2). The UG2 outcrops in the Klein Dwarsrivier valley over a north-south strike length of 7.5km and dips to the west at approximately 7 to 10 degrees.

TRP is exploiting platinum group metals (PGMs) and associated by-products comprising chromite and base metals (Cu, Ni and Co) which are hosted in the UG2 and Merensky reefs of the Bushveld Complex. The Bushveld Complex is the largest layered igneous complex in the world, hosting approximately 85% of known global platinum group metals resources.

Layered accumulations of mafic and ultramafic lithologies in the Bushveld Complex are collectively referred to as the Rustenburg Layered Suite (RLS). The stratigraphy of the RLS is broadly sub-divided into five zones namely (from bottom to top) the marginal zone, the lower zone, the critical zone, the main zone and the upper zone. The critical zone is of economic significance to Two Rivers Platinum Mine because it is the host of economically viable reefs – the UG2 and Merensky reefs. The critical zone is further subdivided into lower and upper critical zones. Both UG2 and Merensky reefs occur in the upper critical zone.

The geological succession at Two Rivers Platinum Mine is broadly similar to that encountered on the other operations in the southern portion of the eastern limb of the Bushveld Complex. An exception is the occurrence of the Steelpoortpark granite which is outcropping on the farm Buffelshoek 368 KT on the south-western part of the TRP mineral right area.

The Mineral Resources and Mineral Reserves for TRP are declared for both UG2 and Merensky Reef horizons.

The middling between the Merensky Reef and the UG2 Reef is approximately 140 metres to 160 metres. There is a notable increase in the middling between the UG2 and Merensky reef horizons from north to south across the mine.

The UG2 Reef is a chromitite hosted PGM orebody with poorly mineralised pyroxenite partings. High PGM concentrations are closely associated with the chromitite layers while the pyroxenite layers within and between the chromites contain low to no concentrations of PGMs.

The UG2 Reef outcrops along the Klein Dwarsrivier valley on Dwarsrivier 372 KT farm, with a north-south strike length of 7.5 kilometres, dipping to the west at between 7º to 10º. Elevated topography in the lease area results in the UG2 occurring at a depth of approximately 935 metres on the western extent of Dwarsrivier 372 KT farm.

Elevated concentrations of PGMs in the UG2 Reef generally occur in the basal and uppermost 10 centimetre portions of the main chromitite layer with basal contact having higher PGM grades.

The following three reef facies have been defined for the UG2 at Two Rivers Platinum Mine:
• UG2 Normal Reef facies which is characterised by an 80 to 120 centimetre-thick main chromitite layer overlain by up to three chromitite “leader layers” collectively termed the UG2A chromitites.
• UG2 Split Reef facies, characterised by a chromitite seam that is separated by a broadly persistent, 50 centimetres to 400 centimetres single layer of fine to medium-grained pyroxenite unit in the southern, west-central and north-eastern parts of the mine
• The UG2 Multiple Split Reef facies which is represented by multiple splitting of the UG2 main chromitite by internal pyroxenite layers of variable thicknesses. It occurs mainly in the southern section of the mine on the Dwarsrivier 372 KT farm as well as the east-central section of Buffelshoek 368 KT farm.

The Merensky Reef is a pyroxenite unit consisting of orthopyroxene with lesser amounts of plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Thin chromitite stringers (usually 1 to 4 millimetres thick) occur near the upper and lower contacts of the reef. The upper chromitite stringer occurs approximately 20 centimetres to 30 centimetres below the top contact of the Merensky pyroxenite unit. It is associated with highest concentrations of PGMs. The bottom chromitite stringer occurs at the base of the pyroxenite unit, above the anorthosite footwall. It is associated with a pronounced PGM bottom mineralisation peak.

The Merensky Reef has variable thicknesses across the mine. There is a general decrease in thickness from east to west from Dwarsrivier 372 KT farm (4 metres to 2 metres thick), through Kalkfontein 367 KT up to Buffelshoek 368 KT farm where the reef reduces to 20 centimetres in thickness.

Prominent northeast to southwest trending, upthrow faults with displacements ranging from 5 metres to 60 metres are common on the northern portion of the mine. There is regional north-northeast to south southwest trending Kalkfontein fault, with a vertical displacement of greater than 1 000 metres down thrown to the west. This fault marks the limit of the eastern structural domain for both the UG2 and Merensky reefs.

The ground to the western side of the Kalkfontein fault is declared as an exploration target because the reef occurs at depths greater than 1 000 metres from surface and there is insufficient exploration drilling information.

Reserves

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Mining Methods

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Comminution

Crushers and Mills

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Processing

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Production

CommodityUnits2024202320222021202020192018
6E (Pt,Pd,Rh,Au,Ir,Ru) koz 000000000000000000000348
Platinum koz 000000000000000163
Palladium koz 000000000097
Rhodium koz 000000000029
Ruthenium oz 000000000000000000000000046,937
Iridium oz 00000000000000000000011,274
Gold oz 000000000000000000002,528
Nickel t 000000000000000606
Copper t 000000000000000274
All production numbers are expressed as metal in concentrate. ^ Guidance / Forecast.

Operational metrics

Metrics202320222021202020192018
Ore tonnes mined 0000000000000003.45 Mt
Tonnes milled 000000000000003.46 Mt

Production Costs

Commodity2024202320222021202020192018
Cash costs 6E (Pt,Pd,Rh,Au,Ir,Ru) 00000 00000 00000 0000 000 574 / oz  USD 527 / oz  USD
Cash costs Platinum 00000 00000 00000 0000 1,221 / oz  USD 1,130 / oz  USD
Cash costs Platinum 27 / oz  USD 135 / oz  USD
All-in sustaining costs (sold) Platinum 418 / oz  USD 434 / oz  USD
^ Guidance / Forecast.
Net of By-Product.

Operating Costs

Currency20232022202120202019201820172016
Total operating costs ($/t milled) USD 64  64  62  53  53  53  49  43  

Financials

Units2024202320222021202020192018
Capital expenditures (planned) M ZAR  ....  Subscribe
Capital expenditures M  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 35  USD
Revenue M  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 3,774  ZAR
Gross profit M  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 989  ZAR
After-tax Income M  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 584  ZAR
EBITDA M  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe
Operating Cash Flow M  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe

Heavy Mobile Equipment

Fleet data has not been reported.

Personnel

Mine Management

Source Source
Job TitleNameProfileRef. Date
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Nov 8, 2023
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EmployeesContractorsTotal WorkforceYear
Subscription required Subscription required Subscription required 2023
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Aerial view:

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