South Africa

Zondereinde Mine

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Overview

Mine TypeUnderground
StatusActive
Commodities
  • Platinum
  • Palladium
  • Rhodium
  • Gold
  • Ruthenium
  • Iridium
Mining Method
  • Breast mining
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SnapshotZondereinde Platinum Mine is an established, conventional, long-life operation which mines UG2 and Merensky ore and is located in the western limb of the Bushveld Complex and is housed within Northam Platinum.

The addition of the Western extension will allow Zondereinde to increase its annual production to 350 000 oz 4E and has extended its remaining life of mine to over 30 years. Furthermore, the expanded mining footprint is enabling the creation of direct, meaningful, sustainable employment for an additional 600 people.

Owners

SourceSource
CompanyInterestOwnership
Northam Platinum Ltd. 100 % Indirect

Contractors

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Deposit type

  • Magmatic

Summary:

The Bushveld stratigraphic sequence at Zondereinde is typical of the northern portion of the western limb. The Critical Zone stratigraphy is compressed and dominated by mafic lithologies, with the vertical separation between the Merensky and UG2 Reefs ranging between 20 m and 40 m. Both reefs dip at 20° towards the south-east and extend from a depth of 1 100 m to 3 000 m below surface.

While there is lateral continuity of both reefs across the mine property, the Merensky Reef displays a variety of reef sub-types. The distribution of these is determined from a combination of surface exploration boreholes, ongoing prospect drilling from underground development and on-reef mapping in mine excavations.

Merensky Reef
The Merensky Reef is a zone of mineralisation that straddles the base of the Merensky cyclic unit. In the area of Zondereinde mine, the Merensky Reef consists of two sub-facies of the Zwartklip facies, namely the Normal and Regional Pothole sub-facies. The latter may be further subdivided into three sub-types, each of which occurs at a specific stratigraphic level below that of the Normal sub-facies. Sub-types include NP2 and P2, which constitute the main sources of ore, and FWP2 which, whilst not historically considered a primary mining target due to its undulating morphology in the central portions of the mine, is now successfully exploited in the western portion of the current mining area where it displays lesser disruption. This trend is expected to continue throughout the Western extension section.

The Mineral Resource channel is the planned mining cut on the Merensky Reef and is dependent upon the reef sub-type mined and the geozone in which it is located. In all mining cuts, the Merensky chromitite is exposed with a minimum of 10 cm of the overlying mineralised Merensky pyroxenite as hangingwall.

UG2 Reef
The UG2 Reef at Zondereinde mine is remarkably conformable when compared with the Merensky Reef. Disruption, in the form of potholes and reef rolls, is extremely limited and localised. The reef consists of three chromitite seams separated by narrow pyroxenite partings. The lower seam, termed the Main member, is generally in the order of 85 cm thick, and is overlain by two Leader seams, each in the order of 15 cm thick. The Mineral Resource channel, comprising these seams, inclusive of a 10 cm portion of mineralised reef footwall, which is the planned mining cut, is in the order of 140 cm to 160 cm thickness. There is no basis for subdividing the UG2 Reef into sub-types.

Reserves

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Mining Methods

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Comminution

Crushers and Mills

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Processing

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Production

CommodityProductUnits202320222021202020192018201720162015
Platinum Metal in concentrate oz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe188,288181,624
Palladium Metal in concentrate oz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe88,94786,940
Rhodium Metal in concentrate oz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe26,71726,310
Gold Metal in concentrate oz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe4,5144,421
Ruthenium Metal in concentrate oz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe40,87240,255
Iridium Metal in concentrate oz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe9,5629,338
4E (Pt, Pd, Rh, Au) Metal in concentrate oz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe308,466299,295280,172282,765255,595
6E (Pt,Pd,Rh,Au,Ir,Ru) Metal in concentrate oz  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe358,900348,888
Chrome Concentrate kt  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe361341

Operational metrics

Metrics202320222021202020192018201720162015
Total tonnes mined  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe
Tonnes milled  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe2,023,828 t1,932,804 t1,962,517 t2,020,425 t1,860,384 t
Ore tonnes mined  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe2,455,614 t2,274 kt2,150 kt2,245 kt2,069 kt

Production Costs

Commodity2023202220212020201920182017
Cash costs 6E (Pt,Pd,Rh,Au,Ir,Ru)  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 12,677 / oz **  ZAR 11,521 / oz **  ZAR
Cash costs 4E (Pt, Pd, Rh, Au)  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 14,735 / oz **  ZAR 13,425 / oz **  ZAR
Cash costs Platinum  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 24,124 / oz **  ZAR 22,101 / oz **  ZAR 20,890 / oz **  ZAR
** Net of By-Product.

Operating Costs

Currency202320222021202020192018
Direct operating costs ($/t milled) ZAR 3,105  2,902  2,458  2,629  2,015  1,867  

Financials

Units2023202220212020201920182017
Sustaining costs M ZAR  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 68.4   249.5  
Capital expenditures M ZAR  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 674   1,530   806.4  
Revenue M ZAR  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 10,280   7,143   6,395  
Operating Income M ZAR  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 1,311   355.4   232.5  
Pre-tax Income M ZAR  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 995.3   229.2   257.1  
After-tax Income M ZAR  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 726.3   142.6   184  
EBITDA M ZAR  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe  ....  Subscribe 1,418   527.9  

Heavy Mobile Equipment

Fleet data has not been reported.

Personnel

Mine Management

Job TitleNameProfileRef. Date
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Oct 19, 2023
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Oct 19, 2023
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Oct 19, 2023
....................... Subscription required ....................... Subscription required Subscription required Oct 19, 2023

EmployeesContractorsTotal WorkforceYear
...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required 2023
...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required 2022
...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required 2021
...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required 2020
...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required 2019
...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required ...... Subscription required 2018
...... Subscription required 2017
...... Subscription required 2016
...... Subscription required 2015

Aerial view:

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